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    Understanding the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new development dynamic

    Understanding the New Development Stage, Applying the New Development Philosophy, and Creating a New Development Dynamic

    XI JINPING

    President Xi Jinping toured Jiangsu province, Nov 12-13, 2020. The photo here shows him inspecting Pumping Station No 4 of the Jiangdu Key Water Conservancy Project in Yangzhou, afternoon of Nov 13. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER XIE HUANCHI

    Since the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in October 2020, all regions and departments have yielded positive results from their hard work to study, publicize, and apply the guiding principles from the Session in line with the Central Committee's requirements. During this special seminar, the Central Committee hopes that we will gain an accurate understanding of the new stage of development through extensive discussions and exchanges of experience, with a view to fully implementing the new development philosophy, accelerating our efforts to create a new development dynamic, and promoting high-quality development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025). Doing so will see us setting the stage for building a modern socialist country in all respects.

    I have spoken of the importance of studying and applying the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session both at the Session itself and on many other occasions, such as meetings of the Central Committee Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, the Central Economic Work Conference, and the Central Rural Work Conference. Today, I would like to focus on the following four subjects.

    First, we need to have an accurate understanding of the new stage of development.

    An accurate understanding of the historical stage that the cause of our Party and people has entered is essential for defining the central task of the current period and setting the guidelines, principles, and policies for our work. This is an important practice our Party has used to move from victory to victory in leading China's revolution, development, and reform.

    During the new-democratic revolution, our Party came to realize during the course of its arduous explorations that the Chinese revolution would have to pass through the historical stage of New Democracy. Based on this understanding, it set the tasks, strategies, and tactics that enabled it to lead the people to win the Chinese revolution. When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, our Party was keenly aware that a transitional period would be required to move from new democracy to socialism. It accordingly formulated a general guideline for this period, which enabled our country to complete its socialist revolution and move smoothly into the period of socialist development. Following the introduction of the reform and opening up policy in 1978, it reviewed the positive and negative experiences of socialist development around the world, and particularly in China, and reached the major conclusion that China was in the primary stage of socialism and would remain in that stage for a long time to come. Accordingly, it set the basic guideline that ushered in a brand new phase of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Central Committee has built on the sustained efforts of our predecessors by pursuing coordinated implementation of the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. As a result, we have witnessed historic achievements and developments in the cause of our Party and the country, as socialism with Chinese characteristics has crossed the threshold into a new era.

    From Jan 18 to 20, 2021, President Xi toured Beijing and Hebei province and presided over a meeting reporting on preparations for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. On the afternoon of Jan 19, he visited Taizicheng Station on the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed rail line. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER JU PENG

    The Fifth Plenary Session determined that China, having accomplished the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, would build on this achievement to embark on a new journey toward the Second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country in all respects, thus signifying China's entry into a new stage of development. This strategic judgment was made based on the following considerations.

    From a theoretical standpoint, Marxism blends high ideals with practical tasks, and insists on the unity between historical inevitability and the stage-specific nature of development, in the belief that as human society moves inexorably toward communism, it must complete certain historical stages along the way. While applying the basic tenets of Marxism to the practical problems of China, our Party came to realize that the development of socialism did not only constitute one continuous historical process, but was made up of different stages. Between late 1959 and early 1960, Mao Zedong wrote in his reading notes on the Soviet textbook Political Economy that "It is possible to divide the period of socialism into two stages: one could be called underdeveloped socialism and one comparatively developed socialism. This latter stage," he noted, "may take even longer than the first." In 1987, Deng Xiaoping stated that "Socialism itself is the first stage of communism, and here in China we are still in the primary stage of socialism—that is, the underdeveloped stage. In everything we do we must proceed from this reality, and all planning must be consistent with it." The new development stage we are in today is just one part of the primary stage of socialism, but thanks to many decades of hard work, it is a period that marks a new starting point for us.

    From a historical standpoint, this new stage will see our Party lead the people in completing the historic transformation from standing up and becoming prosperous to growing strong. After its founding in 1921, the CPC united with and led the people through a bitter, 28 year-long struggle to establish the People's Republic of China and make the historic transition from new-democratic revolution to socialist revolution. After the founding of the PRC in 1949, our Party led the people in creatively carrying out a socialist transformation by establishing socialism as China's basic system and promoting socialist economic and cultural progress on a large scale. The Chinese people not only stood up, but stood firmly on their own feet and completed the historic transition from socialist revolution to socialist development. On entering a new historical period, it led the people in launching the great new revolution of reform and opening up, which sparked tremendous enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity among all of our people and opened up the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. As China made large strides in catching up with the times, it took yet another huge leap forward along the course of socialist modernization and embraced the bright prospects of national rejuvenation. Building on the development of the past, we are now writing the new chapter of building China into a modern socialist country in all respects.

    In terms of the present reality, we now possess a solid material foundation for embarking on a new journey toward an even higher goal. Thanks to the tireless efforts made since the PRC's founding, and especially in the past 40-odd years since the adoption of the reform and opening up policy, China reached new levels in economic strength, scientific and technological capability, composite national strength, and living standards by the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). China is now the world's second largest economy, the largest industrial nation, the largest trader of goods, and the largest holder of foreign exchange reserves. China's GDP has exceeded RMB100 trillion yuan and stands at over $10,000 in per capita terms. Permanent urban residents account for over 60% of the population, and the middle-income group has grown to over 400 million. Particularly noteworthy are our historic achievements of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and eliminating absolute poverty—a problem which has plagued our nation for thousands of years. These are significant milestones in our process of socialist modernization, and lay a solid foundation for marching toward the Second Centenary Goal during the new stage of development.

    Shortly after the founding of the PRC, our Party put forward the goal of building a modern socialist country. Over the course of 13 five-year plans, we have laid a solid foundation for achieving this goal. The next 30 years make up the development stage in which we will finally complete this great ambition. We have worked out the roadmap and timetable for our development going forward. By 2035, or within three five-year plan periods, we will basically achieve socialist modernization. Then, by the middle of this century, after completing another three five-year plans, China will become a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.

    The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. Recently, the world situation could be best described by the word "chaos," and it appears that this trend will continue for quite some time. The response to the Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the leadership capacities and strengths of the social systems of all countries. The fact that time and momentum are on our side gives us self-assurance, resolve, and confidence.

    That said, we must fully recognize that although China remains in an important period of strategic opportunity for development, and will remain so for some time to come, the opportunities and challenges we face are changing. Though both are unprecedented in their extent, the opportunities generally outweigh the challenges. An ancient Chinese sage once said that we should handle the easy and small things cautiously so as to avoid difficulties and disasters. All of us in the Party must remain modest, prudent, and committed to hard work; we must mobilize all positive factors, unite with all forces that can be united with, and focus on running our own affairs well, as we work unswervingly toward our objectives.

    Our task is to build China into a modern socialist country in all respects. Of course, the modernization we are pursuing has distinctive Chinese features and is tailored to the realities of China. At the Fifth Plenary Session, I underscored five characteristics in particular. China's modernization must cover a massive population, lead to common prosperity, deliver both material and cultural-ethical progress, promote harmony between humanity and nature, and proceed along a path of peaceful development. This is the direction modernization in China must follow. It must be embodied in our principles, policies, strategies, measures, and work plans to enable the Party and the Chinese people to work together toward this end.

    The new stage of development is an important part of socialist development in our country. In 1992, Deng Xiaoping stated that "We have been building socialism for only a few decades and are still in the primary stage. It will take a very long historical period to consolidate and develop the socialist system, and it will require persistent struggle by several generations, a dozen or even several dozens. We can never rest on our oars." In my opinion, Deng made this remark from a political point of view. He was pointing out that it would take a fairly long period of hard work to turn China into a modern country based on the weak economic foundation of the time. But he was also stressing that we must persist with China's socialist system from one generation to the next, even after modernization is achieved. We must work continuously to find ways to consolidate and develop socialism, for no solution can last forever once developed. Mao Zedong once said that "All things have their boundaries. The way things develop is that one stage leads to another, advancing without interruption. But each and every stage has a 'boundary.' To deny the 'boundary' is to deny qualitative changes or partial qualitative changes." The primary stage of socialism is not a static, cast-iron, or stagnant period, nor is it a spontaneous and passive stage that can easily and naturally be passed through. Rather, it is a stage of dynamism, action, and promise, one that should always brim with vitality. It develops gradually but ceaselessly, moving from quantitative increases to qualitative leaps. Fully building a modern socialist China and basically realizing socialist modernization are essential for China's development in the primary stage of socialism, and essential for China to advance from the primary stage to a higher stage of socialism.

    Second, we need to fully apply the new development philosophy.

    For our Party, one very important part of leading the people in governing the country is answering the major questions of what kind of development China should pursue and how it should pursue it. On October 29, 2015, at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, I stated, "Principles are precursors to actions. All actions in development are guided by principles of development, and it is these principles that ultimately determine the effectiveness of development and its success or failure. Experience tells us that development is a process of constant change, and that the environments and conditions in which development takes place are both subject to change. Therefore, it is only natural that principles of development should also be subject to change."

    President Xi toured Guizhou province, Feb 3-5, 2021, where he visited with officials and members of the public and conveyed his Spring Festival greetings to all people across the nation. He visited a grocery store in Guanshanhu district, Guiyang, taking a look at how supplies, sales, and prices were fairing, afternoon of February 4 before the Chinese New Year. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER XIE HUANCHI

    Since the 18th National Congress in 2012, our Party has, based on the careful assessment of the economic situation, made timely adjustments to our development principles and approach, which have given rise to historic achievements and shifts in the economic development of our country. Here, I would like to mention the most significant of these developments.

    First, we have committed to a people-centered philosophy of development. In my address to the domestic and foreign press during the debut of the Standing Committee of 18th Central Committee Political Bureau on November 15, 2012, I stressed that "The people yearn for a better life, our goal is to help them achieve it, and we must unswervingly follow the path of common prosperity." At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee on October 29, 2015, I put forward the vision of people-centered development. At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee on October 29, 2020, I further underscored the need to strive for substantive progress in promoting common prosperity for all our people.

    Second, we have changed the thinking that the GDP growth rate is the sole barometer of success. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 15, 2012, I stressed that we cannot blindly pursue rapid growth without regard for objective laws and conditions. At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee Political Bureau on April 25, 2013, I stressed that local governments should not take national regulatory targets as the baseline for local economic development, nor should they compete with each other to have higher growth rates. I said that we needed to shift the focus to improving the quality and returns of economic growth, to promoting sustained and healthy economic development, and to pursuing genuine rather than inflated GDP growth and achieving high-quality, efficient, and sustainable development.

    On Feb 22, 2021, Party and state leaders including Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng met with research and operations personnel who took part in the Chang'e 5 lunar exploration mission at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Xi Jinping and others are pictured here viewing a display showing samples brought back from the moon and explaining the results of the mission. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER LI XUEREN

    Third, China's economy entered a period defined by three overlapping phases. At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee Political Bureau on July 25, 2013, I noted that our economy was now in a slowing growth phase, a painful structural adjustment phase, and a phase of absorbing the adverse effects of previous stimulus policies. I emphasized that, at the same time, the world economy was also in a period of profound adjustment, which made for an extremely complex economic development environment. This required us to gain a proper understanding of the characteristics of the current stage of Chinese economic development and to undertake practical reforms and adjustments.

    Fourth, China's economic development entered a new normal. I put forward this proposition at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 10, 2013. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 9 of the following year, I analyzed new development trends in nine respects to explain why economic development had entered a new normal. I emphasized that understanding the new normal, adapting to it, and guiding its development constituted the major theme of China's economic development both at present and in the period ahead.

    Fifth, we have enabled the market to play the decisive role in resource allocation and given better play to the role of the government. I stated at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in November 2013 that the market is the most efficient means of allocating resources. A general law of market economies is that the market should determine the allocation of resources. I thus highlighted the need to let the market play the decisive role in resource allocation, thereby redefining the role of the market.

    Sixth, we have committed to the idea that lucid waters and lush mountains are as precious as mountains of silver and gold. I put forward this concept during a speech at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan on September 7, 2013. I emphasized that developing an ecological civilization and building a beautiful China constitute a strategic task, because we need to make sure we leave behind a beautiful homeland with blue skies, green fields, and clean waters for our future generations. I reiterated this point during a talk with the Guizhou delegation at the Second Session of the 12th National People's Congress on March 7, 2014.

    Seventh, we have introduced the new development philosophy. I proposed the idea of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in October 2015. I noted that innovative development was focused on addressing the issue of growth drivers, coordinated development on redressing imbalances, green development on creating harmony between humanity and nature, open development on coordinating internal and external development, and shared development on ensuring social equity and justice. I stated that the introduction of the new development philosophy marked a fundamental change for the entire development context of our country.

    Eighth, we have initiated supply-side structural reform. At the meeting of the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs on November 10, 2015, I said that we should make great efforts to promote supply-side structural reform. I stated at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 18, 2015 that the five priorities in promoting supply-side structural reform were cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, reducing costs, and strengthening areas of weakness. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 19, 2018, I put forward the policy of consolidating the gains in the five priority tasks, strengthening the dynamism of micro entities, upgrading industrial chains, and ensuring unimpeded flows in the economy. I pointed out that this policy constituted a general requirement for furthering supply-side structural reform and spurring high-quality economic development both at present and in the period ahead.

    Ninth, we must deal with unbalanced and inadequate development. At the 19th CPC National Congress held in October 2017, I concluded that the principal challenge facing Chinese society had evolved into one between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's growing needs for a better life. I emphasized that this represented a historic shift that affected the whole landscape.

    Tenth, we must deliver high-quality development. At the same congress, I pointed out that China's economy was transitioning from a phase of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development. We arrived at this conclusion based on the change in the principal challenge facing Chinese society. In this stage, we need to follow the new development philosophy.

    Eleventh, we must modernize our economic system. As I said in the same speech, this is both an urgent requirement for getting us smoothly through this critical transition and a strategic goal for China's development.

    Twelfth, we have moved to create a new development dynamic that focuses on domestic economic flow and features positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement. I put forward this concept at a meeting of the Central Commission for Financial and Economic Affairs on April 10, 2020.

    Thirteenth, we have adopted a coordinated approach to development and security. I stressed at a group study session of the Central Committee Political Bureau on May 29, 2015 that we must firmly keep in mind the concept of ensuring security in development. On January 18, 2016, I analyzed the risks and challenges in four fields we faced on the path of open development at a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials. On January 5, 2018, in a speech at a seminar for new members and alternative members of the CPC Central Committee and principal provincial and ministerial level leaders, I listed 16 risks in 8 areas that required our full attention. On January 21, 2019, we held a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials on remaining mindful of worst-case scenarios and guarding against and defusing major risks. At the opening session of that seminar, I pointed out that we should guard against and defuse major risks in the political, ideological, economic, scientific and technological, and social domains and in China-US trade frictions, in foreign affairs, and within our Party. I also set forward clear requirements for these tasks, and emphasized the need to always maintain a high level of vigilance, remaining alert to "black swan" events and "grey rhino" risks.

    In reviewing this course of events, I wish to underscore the theories and concepts on economic and social development that we have put forward since our Party's 18th National Congress in 2012. Of these theories and concepts, the new development philosophy is the most important. As a theoretical system, it addresses a series of theoretical and practical issues regarding our development goals, drivers, methods, and approaches, and delineates the major political issues with regard to our political stance, values, and model and path of development. The whole Party must fully and faithfully implement the new development philosophy on all fronts. In doing so, we should focus on the following points.

    1. We must understand the fundamental aim of the new development philosophy.

    As an old saying goes, "As vast as heaven and earth may be, the people must always come first." The people represent the deepest foundation and the greatest source of confidence for our Party in governing the country. Working for the wellbeing of the people and the rejuvenation of the nation is the immutable aim of our Party in leading the modernization drive, and the root and essence of the new development philosophy. We will only have the right view of development and modernization if we follow a people-centered approach, insisting that development is for the people, reliant on the people, and that its fruits should be shared by the people. The Soviet Union was the world's first socialist country and once enjoyed spectacular success. Ultimately however, it collapsed, mainly because the Communist Party of the Soviet Union became detached from the people and turned into a group of privileged bureaucrats concerned only with protecting their own interests. Even in a modernized country, if a governing party turns its back on the people, it will imperil the fruits of modernization.

    President Xi toured Fujian province, March 22-25, 2021. He is seen in this photo inspecting the spring tea crop and learning about the development of the local tea industry at an eco-friendly tea farm in Nanping, afternoon of March 22. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER JU PENG

    Realizing common prosperity is more than an economic goal. It is a major political issue that bears on our Party's governance foundation. We cannot allow the gap between the rich and the poor to continue growing—for the poor to keep getting poorer while the rich continue growing richer. We cannot permit the wealth gap to become an unbridgeable gulf. Of course, common prosperity should be realized in a gradual way that gives full consideration to what is necessary and what is possible and adheres to the laws governing social and economic development. At the same time, however, we cannot afford to just sit around and wait. We must be proactive about narrowing the gaps between regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor people. We should promote all-around social progress and well-rounded personal development, and advocate social fairness and justice, so that our people enjoy the fruits of development in a fairer way. We should see that people have a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness, and security and make them feel that common prosperity is not an empty slogan but a concrete fact that they can see and feel for themselves.

    President Xi chats with teachers and students at the Imaging and Intelligence Technology Laboratory at Tsinghua University, April 19, 2021, shortly before the school marked its 110th anniversary. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER HUANG JINGWEN

    2. We need to stay problem-oriented.

    The China of today stands at a new historical starting point in development. In light of development requirements in the new stage, we need to stick to a problem-oriented approach so that we can implement the new development philosophy with even greater precision. We need to effectively address the issues relating to unbalanced and insufficient development in order to make our development high-quality. For example, greater self-reliance in science and technology, which is essential for us to sustain and develop ourselves, has been hampered by many bottlenecks. The development gap between urban and rural areas and between regions is still too large, and the question of how exactly we should solve this problem involves extensive research into many new issues. In particular, we need to present clear approaches in response to regional divergence and reorganization, accelerated population migration across regions, and the decreasing willingness among rural residents to settle in cities. There is broad consensus about promoting a green transformation in every aspect of economic and social development. But our energy system is still heavily reliant on fossil fuels such as coal, which puts a great strain on the efforts to realize a green and low-carbon transformation in our production modes and ways of life. The targets of reaching peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality before 2060 are extremely formidable. Given the backlash against economic globalization and the complex and changeable external environment, we need to strike a good balance between greater self-reliance and openness and cooperation, between participation in the international division of labor and the safeguarding of national security, and between utilized foreign investment and security reviews, so that China can open wider to the outside world while guaranteeing its national security. In short, as we enter a new stage of development, we need to deepen our understanding of the new development philosophy, so that we can take more targeted and more concrete measures that will truly deliver high-quality development.

    3. We must be mindful of the difficulties ahead.

    Good planning and preparation are the keys to avoiding difficulties and hardships. As the principal contradiction in Chinese society has changed and the global balance of power is steadily shifting, China will have to contend with more internal and external risks in development than before. We must be more aware of potential dangers, keep in mind worst-case scenarios, and be prepared for more complex and graver situations. The Central Committee prioritized issues of security in its Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035. It emphasized that we should ensure security in all areas and throughout the entire process of China's development. If our underlying security foundations are not solid, the entire edifice of our development will come under threat. We must uphold the unity between political security, the safety of the people, and the interests of the nation, be ready to stand up for ourselves and be adept at doing so, and work to increase our overall strengths, especially the strength of our deterrence.

    We should prevent major fluctuations in the macro economy and avoid large inflows and withdrawals of foreign investment in the capital market. We must ensure the security of food, energy, and major resource supplies, as well as the stability and security of industrial and supply chains. We need to prevent the disorderly expansion and unchecked growth of capital, and ensure environmental and workplace safety. We should guard against the risk of large-scale job losses, strengthen public health security, and effectively prevent and handle public disturbances. In strengthening the systems for safeguarding national security, we should draw on experiences from other countries, work out how to set necessary security barriers and locks at different stages, and identify effective solutions for various national security issues.

    Third, we need to accelerate the creation of a new development dynamic.

    The Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 defined the creation of a new development dynamic that focuses on domestic flow and features positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement as a major strategic task that concerned China's overall development interests. This task must be correctly understood and actively promoted according to the overall situation.

    In recent years, we have witnessed a backlash against economic globalization and profound adjustments to the circulation patterns in the international economy. The Covid-19 pandemic exacerbated the trend of deglobalization, and many countries have now become more inward-looking. When the epidemic was prevalent, I visited several provinces around the country to gain an in-depth understanding of the situation on epidemic containment and investigate the problems that had emerged in reopening the economy. During my visit to Zhejiang Province, I found that global industrial and supply chains had been partially disrupted due to the pandemic. This had directly impacted flows in the domestic economy. Many companies were forced to suspend operations because they could not bring in the raw materials and personnel they needed or send their goods overseas. I realized just how much things had changed; the environments and conditions that had facilitated largescale imports and exports were no longer in place. Given these new circumstances, we needed to come up with new thinking to steer development. Accordingly, in April last year I proposed that we create a new development dynamic that focused on domestic flow and featured positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement. At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee in October 2020, we made comprehensive arrangements for this task. The establishment of the new development dynamic is a strategic and proactive step for taking the initiative in development, a major historic mission that must be fulfilled in the new development stage, and an important measure for applying the new development philosophy.

    As a socialist country with a large population and a vast market, China is certain to encounter various pressures and stern challenges in the process of modernization, the likes of which no other country will have ever experienced. In 1936, Mao Zedong made a remark that still holds true for us even today. He said, "No matter how complicated, grave, and harsh the circumstances, what a military leader needs most of all is the ability to function independently in organizing and employing the forces under his command. He may often be forced into a passive position by the enemy, but the important thing is to regain the initiative quickly. Failure to do so spells defeat. The initiative is not something imaginary but is concrete and material." If we can, by dint of our own efforts, ensure unimpeded domestic flow to effectively shield ourselves from harm, we will have the vigor and vitality to not only survive but thrive amid volatile international situations, making it impossible for anyone to keep us down or to back us into a corner. We must speed up our efforts to create a new development dynamic, so that no matter the challenges or difficulties we encounter, whether anticipated or not, we will be better able to survive, compete, and maintain sustainable development. This way, we can ensure the course of national rejuvenation is never delayed or interrupted.

    In practice, there are some misunderstandings that we need to guard against. First, some people tend to only speak about the first half, or the domestic flow element as the main factor, of the new development dynamic, and call for China to sharply reverse its opening to the outside world. Second, some others speak only of the latter half, or the positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement, and still subscribe to the old development dynamic of large-scale imports and exports with two ends of the economic process—markets and resources—being located abroad, despite the changes to the international landscape. Third, acting in one's own way and only focusing on one's own sphere of interest is also a mistake. Some are neglecting the task of building a unified national market and promoting overall domestic flow, preferring instead to focus on their own local or regional market. Fourth, some have equated unimpeded economic flow with smooth logistics and are focused only on this basic level of circulation. Fifth, in resolving technological bottlenecks, some people want to do everything themselves, which result in needless replication, or they carry out extravagant projects that ultimately fail because they don't take account of reality and the industrial base. Sixth, in working to expand domestic demand and boost the domestic market, some people have begun blindly handing out loans for investment and over-stimulating consumption, or even reverting back to energy-intensive, high-emissions projects. Seventh, some are concentrating on demand-side management at the expense of supply-side structural reform, making it impossible to achieve a higher-level, dynamic equilibrium at which supply boosts demand. Eighth, some think that the new development dynamic is a matter for the economic and technology departments and has little to do with themselves. All of these understandings are incomplete or even erroneous; we must guard against them and rectify them should they arise.

    The key to building a new development dynamic is to ensure unimpeded economic flow, just the same as a healthy person needs to keep the blood vessels circulating freely to maintain a good balance of vital energy and blood. Economic activity requires the integration of various production factors at the stages of production, allocation, distribution, and consumption in order to realize a circular flow. Under normal circumstances, smooth economic flow will lead to increased material products, greater social wealth, improved wellbeing among the people, and enhanced national strength, giving rise to an upward spiral of development. When obstructions and breakages emerge, economic flow is disrupted. From a macroeconomic perspective, the economic growth rate drops, unemployment rises, risks build up, and the balance of payments falls into disequilibrium. At the microeconomic level, problems such as overcapacity, declining enterprise returns, and falling personal incomes arise.

    In the present stage of China's development, the most important task in promoting smooth economic flow is maintaining effective and smooth operations on the supply side. If we have a strong capacity to provide effective supply, we can clear obstructions and bottlenecks in economic flow, enabling us to create jobs and provide income, which will further boost our country's capacity to create demand. As such, we must take furthering supply-side structural reform as our main task, and continue to carry out the priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening areas of weakness. We need to comprehensively improve and upgrade the industrial structure, enhance our innovation capacity, competitiveness, and overall strength, increase the resilience of the supply system, and ensure inputs produce higher-quality outputs with greater efficiency, so as to achieve a dynamic economic equilibrium at a high level.

    I have previously mentioned that the essence of the new development dynamic is realizing a high level of self-reliance. Currently, the environment for our economic development is changing, particularly with respect to our comparative advantages in production factors. Because labor costs are rising and the carrying capacities of our resources and environment have reached a limit, the production function formula of the past is no longer sustainable, and science and technology are becoming more and more important on all fronts. Under such circumstances, it is important to put more emphasis on independent innovation. As a result, the Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 put forward two major measures of promoting scientific and technological innovation and removing bottlenecks in industry. We must understand these issues as being vital to the survival and development of our nation. We should comprehensively strengthen planning for scientific and technological innovation to bring together superior resources, and implement the mechanism to competitively award research projects in order to promote strong and steady progress in innovation. We must better align the chains of innovation and industry, and draw up roadmaps, timetables, and systems of responsibility. Where appropriate, relevant departments and local governments should play the leading role in this regard. Where it is appropriate for enterprises to take the lead, governments should give them their full support. Central government enterprises and other state-owned enterprises must have the courage to shoulder the responsibility and take the lead in turning themselves into the source of original technologies and the head of the modern industrial chain.

    In today's world, markets are the scarcest resource. China's market is thus a huge advantage of our country. We must make full use of this factor and continuously consolidate it to make it a strong pillar for creating a new development dynamic. Expanding domestic demand is not a temporary policy to cope with financial risks and external shocks, nor is it about unleashing a deluge of strong stimulus policies or increasing government investment. Rather, it is about establishing an effective system to boost domestic demand based on China's actual economic development, moving to tap the potential of demand, working faster to build a complete demand system, strengthening demand-side management, and expanding consumer spending while also upgrading the level of consumption, so that the development of our vast domestic market becomes a sustainable historical process.

    To create a new development dynamic and pursue high-standard opening up, we require robust domestic flow and stable economic fundamentals. On this basis, we can create a strong gravitational pull for global production factors and resources, a strong ability to hold our own amid intense international competition, and powerful momentum for the allocation of global resources. We should continue to deepen opening up based on the flow of production factors such as goods, services, capital, and personnel, and steadily expand institution-based opening up with regard to rules, regulations, management, and standards. We should see that China's domestic circulation plays a stronger guiding role in dual-flow dynamics and foster new advantages for China's participation in international economic cooperation and competition. We should work to harness international flow as a means for improving the efficiency and level of domestic flow and the quality and allocation of our production factors. Through competition in the international market, we should boost the competitiveness of our export products and services, and promote industrial transformation and upgrading to increase China's influence in global industry chains, supply chains, and innovation chains. Chinese enterprises now have interests that extend to many countries around the world. This requires that we pay more attention to understanding international affairs and carrying out thorough studies on stakeholders, trading partners, and investment destinations, in order to establish a clear picture of potential benefits and risks.

    To sum up, entering a new stage of development, applying a new development philosophy, and building a new development dynamic are determined by the logic of China's economic and social development theory, history, and practices. These three elements are closely interrelated. Our entry into the new development stage clarifies the historic juncture that national development has reached, the new development philosophy makes clear the guiding principles behind our modernization drive, and the new development dynamic elucidates the path that will take us to economic modernization. An understanding of the new development stage will provide us with the practical basis for applying the new development philosophy and creating a new development dynamic. The new development philosophy will provide us with a guide for understanding the new development stage and creating a new development dynamic. Creating a new development dynamic, on the other hand, is a strategic choice regarding our response to the opportunities and challenges in the new development stage and the implementation of the new development philosophy.

    Fourth, we need to strengthen the Party's overall leadership over China's modernization drive.

    The defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and its most prominent trait is its integration of theoretical and practical innovation and institutional and cultural confidence, all of which imbue socialism with Chinese characteristics with great political, theoretical, institutional, and cultural strengths for promoting development. We should implement the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee in tandem with those of its Fourth Plenary Session to continue modernizing China's system and capacity for governance, and combining the strengths of overall Party leadership and Chinese socialism with those of the new development philosophy in order to realize Party leadership over socialist modernization through better defined functions, more sophisticated systems, and more efficient management.

    How well we implement the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session will have a bearing on the overall development of our Party and country for the next five years, fifteen years, and beyond. The Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035, which were adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session, are rich in content. They incorporate overarching approaches, principles, and strategies as well as detailed requirements, and include strategic decisions that we have been implementing since the CPC's 18th National Congress as well as new major judgments and strategic moves. It is going to require a considerable effort to master this material. If we don't have a thorough understanding of it, we will overlook the essential points and fail to achieve anything of practical value during implementation. Officials at all levels, particularly those in high-ranking positions, need to go through the Recommendations line by line. After acquiring a general understanding, they should delve into the key points and new ideas, and following our fine tradition of linking theory with practice, apply these to the present reality and the long-term horizon to give full play to their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity.

    I have mentioned on many occasions that officials in high-ranking positions should be Marxist statesmen and that officials at every level must be politically discerning. Not long ago, I reiterated this point at a meeting of Party members in leadership positions held by the CPC Central Committee Political Bureau. Economic work is not abstract or isolated, but concrete and connected to the whole. Officials at all levels, particularly high-ranking ones, must act in accordance with the overarching strategy of national rejuvenation and the overall context of once-in-a-century world change, continue to enhance their capacity for political judgment, thinking, and implementation, and bear in mind the fundamental interests of our country. They should consistently strengthen their political ability, strategic foresight, and professional competence with regard to understanding the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new development dynamic. They must willingly shoulder their responsibilities and take effective action to implement the Central Committee's decisions and plans.

    To lead China, a major country in the East with over one billion people, in achieving modernization, our Party must adhere to the principles of seeking truth from facts, pursuing progress while ensuring stability, and promoting coordinated development. We must plan in a more farsighted, comprehensive, and strategic fashion so that advances are made on all fronts and a balance is ensured between the quality, structure, scale, speed, performance, and security of development. In building a modern socialist country in all respects, we will leave no region or ethnic group behind; at the same time, due to significant regional disparities and the unbalanced nature of development, it is not possible to synchronize the modernization processes of all regions, and we should encourage and support regions with the right conditions to take the lead in modernization so as to pave the way for others.

    With the Chinese New Year just around the corner, local Party and government officials should go the extra mile in epidemic prevention and control and in ensuring ample supplies, people's basic needs, and security and stability. We should take timely, specific, and practical measures to defuse risks in order to ensure a peaceful and joyous social atmosphere. We must firmly persist with routine epidemic control, thoroughly implement all prevention and control measures, and act swiftly to effectively deal with any sporadic cases. We should conduct a full investigation of social problems, strengthen analysis and assessment to attain a proper understanding of all potential risks, and take action to guard against and defuse these risks. We need to ensure energy and material supplies and transportation safety during the Spring Festival. We should enhance the crime prevention and control systems and crack down on illegal and criminal activities that affect the lives and property of our people to ensure social stability. We must act as soon as possible to resolve problems that could lead to public disturbances such as overdue payments for construction projects and wage arrears owed to rural migrant workers.

    Comrades, I often recall a remark that Deng Xiaoping made in 1992. He said, "If we can make China a moderately developed country within a hundred years from the founding of the People's Republic, that will be an extraordinary achievement. The period from now to the middle of the next century will be crucial. We must immerse ourselves in hard work: we have difficult tasks to accomplish and bear a heavy responsibility." Now that heavy responsibility has fallen to us, and we must shoulder it with courage and determination. We must unite our people and lead them in working hard in a down-to-earth way to make achievements that are worthy of the Party, the people, and history.

    This was a speech made by General Secretary Xi Jinping at a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials on studying and implementing the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, January 11, 2021.

    (Originally appeared in Qiushi Journal, Chinese edition, No 9, 2021)

    Full Text: Keynote address by Xi Jinping at CPC and World Political Parties Summit

    Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Chinese president, attends the CPC and World Political Parties Summit and delivers a keynote speech in Beijing, capital of China, July 6, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    BEIJING - Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Chinese president, on Tuesday delivered a keynote address at the CPC and World Political Parties Summit via video link in Beijing.

    Please see the attachment for the full text of the English translation of the address.

    Full Text: Keynote address by Xi Jinping at CPC and World Political Parties Summit

    Full Text: Speech by Xi Jinping at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC

    Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, delivers an important speech at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC in Beijing on Thursday. JU PENG/XINHUA

    BEIJING -- Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, on Thursday addressed a ceremony celebrating the CPC centenary at Tian'anmen Square in Beijing.

    Please see the attachment for the full text of the speech. 

    Full Text: Speech by Xi Jinping at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC

    Xi and other former and current Party and State leaders attend the ceremony. YIN BOGU/XINHUA

     

    Full Text: Remarks by President Xi at Global Health Summit

    President Xi Jinping attends the Global Health Summit and delivers a speech via video in Beijing, May 21, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping

    President of the People's Republic of China

    At the Global Health Summit

    21 May 2021

    Your Excellency Prime Minister Mario Draghi,

    Your Excellency President Ursula von der Leyen,

    Dear Colleagues,

    It gives me great pleasure to attend the Global Health Summit. Last year, the G20 successfully held an Extraordinary Leaders' Summit on COVID-19 and the Riyadh Summit. Many important common understandings were reached on promoting global solidarity against the virus and boosting world economic recovery.

    The past year and more have seen repeated resurgence and frequent mutations of the coronavirus. The most serious pandemic in a century is still wreaking havoc. To clinch an early victory against COVID-19 and restore economic growth remains the top priority for the international community. G20 members need to shoulder responsibilities in global cooperation against the virus. In the meantime, we need to draw on experience both positive and otherwise, and lose no time in remedying deficiencies, closing loopholes and strengthening weak links in a bid to enhance preparedness and capacity for coping with major public health emergencies. Here, I want to make five points on what we need to do.

    First, we must put people and their lives first. The battle with COVID-19 is one for the people and by the people. What has happened proves that to completely defeat the virus, we must put people's lives and health front and center, demonstrate a great sense of political responsibility and courage, and make extraordinary responses to an extraordinary challenge. No effort must be spared to attend every case, save every patient, and truly respect the value and dignity of every human life. Meanwhile, it is also important to minimize the potential impact on people's life and maintain general order in our society.

    Second, we must follow science-based policies and ensure a coordinated and systemic response. Faced with this new infectious disease, we should advocate the spirit of science, adopt a science-based approach, and follow the law of science. The fight against COVID-19 is an all-out war that calls for a systemic response to coordinate pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, balance targeted routine COVID-19 protocols and emergency measures, and ensure both epidemic control and socio-economic development. G20 members need to adopt responsible macro-economic policies and step up coordination to keep the global industrial and supply chains safe and smooth. It is essential to give continued support by such means as debt suspension and development aid to developing countries, especially vulnerable countries facing exceptional difficulties.

    Third, we must stick together and promote solidarity and cooperation. The pandemic is yet another reminder that we humanity rise and fall together with a shared future. Confronted by a pandemic like COVID-19, we must champion the vision of building a global community of health for all, tide over this trying time through solidarity and cooperation, and firmly reject any attempt to politicize, label or stigmatize the virus. Political manipulation would not serve COVID-19 response on the domestic front. It would only disrupt international cooperation against the virus and bring greater harm to people around the world.

    Fourth, we must uphold fairness and equity as we strive to close the immunization gap. A year ago, I proposed that vaccines should be made a global public good. Today, the problem of uneven vaccination has become more acute. It is imperative for us to reject vaccine nationalism and find solutions to issues concerning the production capacity and distribution of vaccines, in order to make vaccines more accessible and affordable in developing countries. Major vaccine-developing and producing countries need to take up their responsibility to provide more vaccines to developing countries in urgent need, and they also need to support their businesses in joint research and authorized production with other countries having the relevant capacity. Multilateral financial institutions should provide inclusive financing support for vaccine procurement of developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) should speed up efforts under the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access (COVAX) facility.

    Fifth, we must address both the symptoms and root causes as we improve the governance system. The pandemic is an extensive test of the global health governance system. It is important that we strengthen and leverage the role of the UN and the WHO and improve the global disease prevention and control system to better prevent and respond to future pandemics. It is important that we uphold the spirit of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, fully heed the views of developing countries, and better reflect their legitimate concerns. It is also important that we enhance our capacity of monitoring, early-warning and emergency response, our capacity of treatment of major pandemics, of contingency reserve and logistics, of fighting disinformation, and of providing support to developing countries.

    Colleagues,

    In this unprecedented battle against the pandemic, China has, while receiving support and help from many countries, mounted a massive global humanitarian operation. At the 73rd World Health Assembly held in May last year, I announced five measures that China would take to support global anti-pandemic cooperation. Implementation of those measures is well underway. Notwithstanding the limited production capacity and enormous demand at home, China has honored its commitment by providing free vaccines to more than 80 developing countries in urgent need and exporting vaccines to 43 countries. We have provided 2 billion US dollars in assistance for the COVID-19 response and economic and social recovery in developing countries hit by the pandemic. We have sent medical supplies to more than 150 countries and 13 international organizations, providing more than 280 billion masks, 3.4 billion protective suits and 4 billion testing kits to the world. A cooperation mechanism has been established for Chinese hospitals to pair up with 41 African hospitals, and construction for the China-assisted project of the Africa CDC headquarters officially started at the end of last year. Important progress has also been made in the China-UN joint project to set up in China a global humanitarian response depot and hub. China is fully implementing the G20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative for Poorest Countries and has so far put off debt repayment exceeding 1.3 billion US dollars, the highest deferral amount among G20 members.

    In continued support for global solidarity against COVID-19, I wish to announce the following:

    — China will provide an additional 3 billion US dollars in international aid over the next three years to support COVID-19 response and economic and social recovery in other developing countries.

    — Having already supplied 300 million doses of vaccines to the world, China will provide still more vaccines to the best of its ability.

    — China supports its vaccine companies in transferring technologies to other developing countries and carrying out joint production with them.

    — Having announced support for waiving intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines, China also supports the World Trade Organization and other international institutions in making an early decision on this matter.

    — China proposes setting up an international forum on vaccine cooperation for vaccine-developing and producing countries, companies and other stakeholders to explore ways of promoting fair and equitable distribution of vaccines around the world.

    Colleagues,

    The ancient Roman philosopher Seneca said, "We are all waves of the same sea." Let us join hands and stand shoulder to shoulder with each other to firmly advance international cooperation against COVID-19, build a global community of health for all, and work for a healthier and brighter future for humanity.

    Full Text: Remarks by President Xi at Leaders Summit on Climate

    BEIJING - Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a speech at the Leaders Summit on Climate via video link from Beijing on Thursday.

    For Man and Nature: Building a Community of Life Together

    Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping

    President of the People's Republic of China

    At the Leaders Summit on Climate

    22 April 2021

    Honorable President Joe Biden,

    Honorable Colleagues,

    It is a great pleasure to join you at the Leaders Summit on Climate on Earth Day. I wish to thank President Biden for the kind invitation. It is good to have this opportunity to have an in-depth exchange of views with you on climate change, and to discuss ways to tackle this challenge and find a path forward for man and Nature to live in harmony.

    Since time of the industrial civilization, mankind has created massive material wealth. Yet, it has come at a cost of intensified exploitation of natural resources, which disrupted the balance in the Earth's ecosystem, and laid bare the growing tensions in the human-Nature relationship. In recent years, climate change, biodiversity loss, worsening desertification and frequent extreme weather events have all posed severe challenges to human survival and development. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has added difficulty to economic and social development across countries. Faced with unprecedented challenges in global environmental governance, the international community needs to come up with unprecedented ambition and action. We need to act with a sense of responsibility and unity, and work together to foster a community of life for man and Nature.

    — We must be committed to harmony between man and Nature. "All things that grow live in harmony and benefit from the nourishment of Nature." Mother Nature is the cradle of all living beings, including humans. It provides everything essential for humanity to survive and thrive. Mother Nature has nourished us, and we must treat Nature as our root, respect it, protect it, and follow its laws. Failure to respect Nature or follow its laws will only invite its revenge. Systemic spoil of Nature will take away the foundation of human survival and development, and will leave us human beings like a river without a source and a tree without its roots. We should protect Nature and preserve the environment like we protect our eyes, and endeavor to foster a new relationship where man and Nature can both prosper and live in harmony.

    — We must be committed to green development. Green mountains are gold mountains. To protect the environment is to protect productivity, and to improve the environment is to boost productivity — the truth is as simple as that. We must abandon development models that harm or undermine the environment, and must say no to shortsighted approaches of going after near-term development gains at the expense of the environment. Much to the contrary, we need to ride the trend of technological revolution and industrial transformation, seize the enormous opportunity in green transition, and let the power of innovation drive us to upgrade our economic, energy and industrial structures, and make sure that a sound environment is there to buttress sustainable economic and social development worldwide.

    — We must be committed to systemic governance. Mountains, rivers, forests as well as farmlands, lakes, grasslands and deserts all make indivisible parts of the ecosystem. Protecting the ecosystem requires more than a simplistic, palliative approach. We need to follow the innate laws of the ecosystem and properly balance all elements and aspects of Nature. This is a way that may take us where we want to be, an ecosystem in sound circulation and overall balance.

    — We must be committed to a people-centered approach. The environment concerns the well-being of people in all countries. We need to take into full account people's longing for a better life and a good environment as well as our responsibility for future generations. We need to look for ways to protect the environment, grow the economy, create jobs and remove poverty all at the same time, so as to deliver social equity and justice in the course of green transition and increase people's sense of benefit, happiness and security.

    — We must be committed to multilateralism. We need to work on the basis of international law, follow the principle of equity and justice, and focus on effective actions. We need to uphold the UN-centered international system, comply with the objectives and principles laid out in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Paris Agreement, and strive to deliver the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We need to each take stronger actions, strengthen partnerships and cooperation, learn from each other and make common progress in the new journey toward global carbon neutrality. In this process, we must join hands, not point fingers at each other; we must maintain continuity, not reverse course easily; and we must honor commitments, not go back on promises.

    China welcomes the United States' return to the multilateral climate governance process. Not long ago, the Chinese and US sides released a Joint Statement Addressing the Climate Crisis. China looks forward to working with the international community including the United States to jointly advance global environmental governance.

    — We must be committed to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is the cornerstone of global climate governance. Developing countries now face multiple challenges to combat COVID-19, grow the economy, and address climate change. We need to give full recognition to developing countries' contribution to climate action and accommodate their particular difficulties and concerns. Developed countries need to increase climate ambition and action. At the same time, they need to make concrete efforts to help developing countries strengthen the capacity and resilience against climate change, support them in financing, technology, and capacity building, and refrain from creating green trade barriers, so as to help developing countries accelerate the transition to green and low-carbon development.

    Colleagues,

    The Chinese civilization has always valued harmony between man and Nature as well as observance of the laws of Nature. It has been our constant pursuit that man and Nature could live in harmony with each other. Ecological advancement and conservation have been written into China's Constitution and incorporated into China's overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics. China will follow the Thought on Ecological Civilization and implement the new development philosophy. We will aim to achieve greener economic and social development in all aspects, with a special focus on developing green and low-carbon energy. We will continue to prioritize ecological conservation and pursue a green and low-carbon path to development.

    Last year, I made the official announcement that China will strive to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. This major strategic decision is made based on our sense of responsibility to build a community with a shared future for mankind and our own need to secure sustainable development. China has committed to move from carbon peak to carbon neutrality in a much shorter time span than what might take many developed countries, and that requires extraordinarily hard efforts from China. The targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality have been added to China's overall plan for ecological conservation. We are now making an action plan and are already taking strong nationwide actions toward carbon peak. Support is being given to peaking pioneers from localities, sectors and companies. China will strictly control coal-fired power generation projects, and strictly limit the increase in coal consumption over the 14th Five-Year Plan period and phase it down in the 15th Five-Year Plan period. Moreover, China has decided to accept the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and tighten regulations over non-carbon dioxide emissions. China's national carbon market will also start trading.

    As a participant, contributor and trailblazer in global ecological conservation, China is firmly committed to putting multilateralism into action and promoting a fair and equitable system of global environmental governance for win-win cooperation. China will host COP15 to the Convention on Biological Diversity this October and looks forward to working with all parties to enhance global governance on biodiversity. We support COP26 to the UNFCCC in achieving positive outcomes. As we in China often say, "It is more important to show people how to fish than just giving them fish." China has done its best to help developing countries build capacity against climate change through various forms of results-oriented South-South cooperation. From remote sensing satellites for climate monitoring in Africa to low-carbon demonstration zones in Southeast Asia and to energy-efficient lights in small island countries, such cooperation has yielded real, tangible and solid results. China has also made ecological cooperation a key part of Belt and Road cooperation. A number of green action initiatives have been launched, covering wide-ranging efforts in green infrastructure, green energy, green transport and green finance, to bring enduring benefits to the people of all Belt and Road partner countries.

    Colleagues,

    As we say in China, "When people pull together, nothing is too heavy to be lifted." Climate change poses pressing, formidable and long-term challenges to us all. Yet I am confident that as long as we unite in our purposes and efforts and work together with solidarity and mutual assistance, we will rise above the global climate and environment challenges and leave a clean and beautiful world to future generations.

    Thank you.

    Full Text: Keynote speech by President Xi at Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021

    President Xi Jinping delivers a keynote speech via video at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia (BFA) Annual Conference 2021, on April 20, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    BEIJING -- President Xi Jinping on Tuesday delivered a keynote speech via video at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021.

    (Translation)

    Pulling Together Through Adversity and

    Toward a Shared Future for All

    Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping

    President of the People's Republic of China

    At the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021

    20 April 2021

    Your Excellencies Heads of State and Government,

    Your Excellencies Heads of International Organizations,

    Your Excellencies Members of the Board of Directors of the Boao Forum for Asia,

    Distinguished Guests,

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Dear Friends,

    "True friendship brings people close however far apart they may be." It gives me great pleasure to attend the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021 and meet you all in this cloud meeting. Let me begin by extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and people and also in my own name, a warm welcome to all the guests participating both in person and online, and cordial greetings and best wishes to all friends old and new.

    This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Boao Forum. Over these two decades, Asian countries have advanced regional economic integration and worked in unison to pursue both economic and social development, which has turned Asia into the most vibrant and promising region in the global economy. Asia has also stood with the rest of the world in the face of terrorism, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the international financial crisis, COVID-19 and other traditional and non-traditional security threats, which has helped maintain stability and security in the region. As an important member of the Asian family, China has kept deepening reform and opening-up while promoting regional cooperation, thus achieving progress and development in tandem with the rest of Asia and the world. It is fair to say that this Forum has borne witness to the extraordinary journey of China, of Asia and of the world, and has exerted a significant influence in boosting development in Asia and beyond.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    This year's annual conference is convened against a very special background. The theme of the conference—"A World in Change: Join Hands to Strengthen Global Governance and Advance Belt and Road Cooperation"—is most opportune and relevant under the current circumstances.

    Now, the combined forces of changes and a pandemic both unseen in a century have brought the world into a phase of fluidity and transformation. Instability and uncertainty are clearly on the rise. Humanity is facing growing governance deficit, trust deficit, development deficit, and peace deficit. Much remains to be done to achieve universal security and common development. That said, there is no fundamental change in the trend toward a multi-polar world; economic globalization is showing renewed resilience; and the call for upholding multilateralism and enhancing communication and coordination has grown stronger. While we live in an age rife with challenges, it is also an age full of hope.

    Where should humanity go from here? What kind of future should we create for future generations? As we try to answer these important questions, it is crucial that we bear in mind the shared interests of mankind and make responsible and wise choices.

    China calls on all countries in Asia and beyond to answer the call of our times, defeat the pandemic through solidarity, strengthen global governance, and keep pursuing a community with a shared future for mankind.

    — We need consultation on an equal footing to create a future of shared benefits. Global governance should reflect the evolving political and economic landscape in the world, conform to the historical trend of peace, development and win-win cooperation, and meet the practical needs in addressing global challenges. We need to follow the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, uphold true multilateralism, and make the global governance system more fair and equitable. We need to safeguard the UN-centered international system, preserve the international order underpinned by international law, and uphold the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization at its core. World affairs should be handled through extensive consultation, and the future of the world should be decided by all countries working together. We must not let the rules set by one or a few countries be imposed on others, or allow unilateralism pursued by certain countries to set the pace for the whole world. What we need in today's world is justice, not hegemony. Big countries should behave in a manner befitting their status and with a greater sense of responsibility.

    — We need openness and innovation to create a future of development and prosperity. Openness is essential for development and progress. It also holds the key to post-COVID economic recovery. We need to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, deepen regional economic integration, and enhance supply, industrial, data and human resources chains, with a view to building an open world economy. We need to deepen partnerships for connectivity and strengthen infrastructural links to keep the arteries of economic activities unclogged. We must seize the historical opportunities in a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, boost the digital economy, and step up exchanges and cooperation in such areas as artificial intelligence, biomedicine and modern energy, so that the fruits of scientific and technological innovation can be turned into greater benefits for people in all countries. In this age of economic globalization, openness and integration is an unstoppable historical trend. Attempts to "erect walls" or "decouple" run counter to the law of economics and market principles. They would hurt others' interests without benefiting oneself.

    — We need solidarity and cooperation to create a future of health and security. In the ongoing fight against COVID-19, victory will be ours at the end of the day. We must put people and their lives above anything else, scale up information sharing and collective efforts, enhance public health and medical cooperation, and give full play to the key role of the World Health Organization (WHO). It is important that we bolster international cooperation on the R&D, production and distribution of vaccines and increase their accessibility and affordability in developing countries so that everyone in the world can access and afford the vaccines they need. It is also important that we take comprehensive measures to improve global governance on public health security and work together for a global community of health for all. We need to follow the philosophy of green development, advance international cooperation on climate change, and do more to implement the Paris Agreement on climate change. The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities must be upheld, and concerns of developing countries on capital, technology and capacity building must be addressed.

    — We need commitment to justice to create a future of mutual respect and mutual learning. Diversity is what defines our world and makes human civilization fascinating. The COVID-19 pandemic has made it all the more clear to people around the world that we must reject the cold-war and zero-sum mentality and oppose a new "Cold War" and ideological confrontation in whatever forms. In state-to-state relations, the principles of equality, mutual respect and mutual trust must be put front and center. Bossing others around or meddling in others' internal affairs would not get one any support. We must advocate peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, which are common values of humanity, and encourage exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations to promote the progress of human civilization.

    In this context, I would like to announce that once the pandemic gets under control, China will host the second Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations as part of our active efforts to promote inter-civilization dialogue in Asia and beyond.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    I have noted on various occasions that the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a public road open to all, not a private path owned by one single party. All interested countries are welcome aboard to take part in the cooperation and share in its benefits. Belt and Road cooperation pursues development, aims at mutual benefits, and conveys a message of hope.

    Going forward, we will continue to work with other parties in high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. We will follow the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and champion the philosophy of open, green and clean cooperation, in a bid to make Belt and Road cooperation high-standard, people-centered and sustainable.

    — We will build a closer partnership for health cooperation. Chinese businesses have already started joint vaccine production in BRI participating countries such as Indonesia, Brazil, the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Pakistan and Turkey. We will expand cooperation with various parties in infectious disease control, public health, traditional medicine and other areas to jointly protect the lives and health of people in all countries.

    — We will build a closer partnership for connectivity. China will work with all sides to promote "hard connectivity" of infrastructure and "soft connectivity" of rules and standards, ensure unimpeded channels for trade and investment cooperation, and actively develop Silk Road e-commerce, all in a bid to open up a bright prospect for integrated development.

    — We will build a closer partnership for green development. We could strengthen cooperation on green infrastructure, green energy and green finance, and improve the BRI International Green Development Coalition, the Green Investment Principles for the Belt and Road Development, and other multilateral cooperation platforms to make green a defining feature of Belt and Road cooperation.

    — We will build a closer partnership for openness and inclusiveness. A World Bank report suggests that by 2030, Belt and Road projects could help lift 7.6 million people from extreme poverty and 32 million people from moderate poverty across the world. We will act in the spirit of openness and inclusiveness as we work with all willing participants to build the BRI into a pathway to poverty alleviation and growth, which will contribute positively to the common prosperity of humankind.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    The year 2021 marks the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the last century, the CPC has striven forward against all odds in a relentless pursuit of happiness for the Chinese people, rejuvenation for the Chinese nation, and the common good for the world. As a result, the Chinese nation has achieved a great transformation from standing up to growing rich, and to becoming stronger, and has thus made a notable contribution to human civilization and progress. China will continue to play its part in building world peace, promoting global development, and defending international order.

    China will stay committed to peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, develop friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and promote a new type of international relations. China will continue to carry out anti-COVID cooperation with the WHO and other countries, honor its commitment of making vaccines a global public good, and do more to help developing countries defeat the virus. However strong it may grow, China will never seek hegemony, expansion, or a sphere of influence. Nor will China ever engage in an arms race. China will take an active part in multilateral cooperation on trade and investment, fully implement the Foreign Investment Law and its supporting rules and regulations, cut further the negative list on foreign investment, continue to develop the Hainan Free Trade Port, and develop new systems for a higher-standard open economy. All are welcome to share in the vast opportunities of the Chinese market.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    "By setting sail together, we could ride the wind, break the waves, and brave the journey of ten thousand miles." We may at times encounter stormy waves and dangerous rapids, but as long as we pool our efforts and keep to the right direction, the giant vessel of human development will stay on an even keel and sail toward a brighter future.

    Thank you.

    Full Text: Keynote Speech by President Xi at China-CEEC Summit

    President Xi Jinping chairs the China-Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) Summit and delivers a keynote speech via video link in Beijing, capital of China, Feb 9, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    Keeping up the Momentum and Working

    Together for

    A New Chapter in China-CEEC Cooperation

    Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping President of the

    People's Republic of China

    At the China-CEEC Summit

     

    Beijing, 9 February 2021

    Dear Colleagues,

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    Welcome to the China-CEEC Summit. This Summit takes place as countries are going all out to fight COVID-19. To meet at such an unusual moment shows our resolve to stand together in face of difficulties and pursue shared development through cooperation.

    It has been nine years since cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) started. Nine years ago, with a commitment to win-win cooperation and common development and a resolve to create a better future together, we jointly initiated this cooperation mechanism between China and CEE countries, a decision that responded to the call of our times and the trend of development. China-CEEC relations have thus entered a new stage.

    Nine years on, China-CEEC cooperation has stood the test of time and intricate changes in the international landscape. It has developed some principles that are reflective of its distinctive features and accepted by all parties.

    First, making decisions through consultation. China-CEEC cooperation is based on mutual respect and has no political strings attached. All countries involved, regardless of their size, are equal partners in a cooperation mechanism featuring extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. Guided by the conviction that "17 plus 1 could make more than 18", we have set up a multi-dimensional cooperation framework led by the leaders' summit and covering 20-plus sectors to ensure the participation of all CEE countries. Mindful of each other's concerns, we have drawn up plans and decided on projects based on the national reality of each country, and encouraged all countries to find the best way to leverage their respective strengths in cooperation.

    Second, delivering benefits to all cooperation partners. With its focus on real results, China-CEEC cooperation has served the purpose of supporting our respective development and bettering the lives of our people. To make our cooperation more balanced, we have pursued both economic cooperation and cultural exchanges, placed equal importance on trade and investment, and made sure that the fruits of cooperation are shared by all countries and communities. Today, trade between China and CEE countries is nearly 85 percent bigger than nine years ago, and growth in China's import from CEE countries is 22 percentage points higher than that of export. The number of mutual tourist visits has grown nearly five times. The China-Europe Railway Express has reached most of the CEE countries, running more than 30,000 freight services so far. Impressive progress has been made in a number of cooperation projects, including the Port of Piraeus in Greece, the Smederevo Steel Plant in Serbia, and the Peljesac Bridge in Croatia.

    Third, pursuing common development through openness and inclusiveness. China and CEE countries share the conviction that openness brings opportunities and inclusiveness ensures diversity. This is the key to the sustained vibrancy of China-CEEC cooperation. We have drawn on each other's strengths through mutual learning, and narrowed differences and resolved disagreements through consultation and cooperation. We have followed widely-accepted international rules, conformed to market principles, and respected EU standards in our cooperation. We also welcome the participation of other countries and international organizations in our cooperation to achieve win-win results.

    Fourth, achieving bigger growth through innovation. Acting in an innovative and pioneering spirit, we have taken steps early on to explore the possibility of aligning cross-regional cooperation with Belt and Road cooperation, making Central and Eastern Europe the first region where all countries have signed agreements on Belt and Road cooperation. In light of the needs and unique geographical locations of CEE countries, we have worked hard for good progress in the Budapest-Belgrade Railway and other major cooperation projects.

    Colleagues,

    We are living in challenging times. Changes unseen in a century, coupled with the global COVID-19 pandemic, have had a far-reaching impact. In the face of such unprecedented challenges, countries must come together and respond with solidarity and coordination like never before.

    In 2020, overall China-EU relations made new progress despite the challenges caused by the pandemic. The two sides concluded on schedule negotiations on the Comprehensive Agreement on Investment, signed an agreement on geographical indications, and launched partnerships for green and digital cooperation. The two sides also stood firm for multilateralism and took on global challenges together. China-CEEC cooperation is part and parcel of China-EU relations, whose good progress means new opportunities for China-CEEC cooperation.

    Colleagues,

    China-CEEC cooperation is a cross-regional cooperation platform with important influence. Under the new circumstances, what could we do to take our cooperation forward? I want to share with you the following four thoughts of suggestion.

    First, we need to tackle COVID-19 head on and boost confidence in cooperation to tide over the tough times. Fighting the pandemic is currently the most pressing task for us. To complete this task, China will work with CEE countries through solidarity, coordination and cooperation. Our two sides could enhance joint response and experience sharing on prevention and treatment, explore cooperation on traditional medicine, and scale up public health and medical cooperation. These efforts will contribute to a global community of health for all. China will continue to provide vaccines to countries in need to the best of its capability, and do what it can to make vaccines a global public good and promote their equitable distribution and application around the world. China stands ready for vaccine cooperation with CEE countries. So far, Serbia has received one million doses of vaccines from a Chinese company, and there is ongoing cooperation between Hungary and Chinese vaccine companies. China will actively consider such cooperation with other CEE countries if there is the need.

    We need to stay committed to open cooperation. We need to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, work to build an open world economy and move the world economy out of the shadow of crisis as early as possible. The priority for the time being is to coordinate COVID response and economic and social development, resume travels and economic activities in a prudent and orderly manner, and keep industrial and supply chains stable, so as to bolster our efforts to contain the coronavirus and revive the economy.

    Second, we need to focus on connectivity and develop smooth avenues of cooperation for interconnected development. We need to keep improving connectivity as a solid foundation for interconnected development at a higher level. We could pursue high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, speed up such major projects as the Budapest-Belgrade Railway, and continue to support the development of the China-Europe Railway Express to unlock the full potential of our cooperation.

    It is also important that we deepen customs cooperation to ensure trade security and faster clearance. China will work toward the establishment of a China-CEEC customs information center and a focal point for customs clearance coordination for countries along the China-Europe Land-Sea Express Line. We could also explore cooperation on a pilot basis under the "Smart Customs, Smart Borders and Smart Connectivity" Initiative.

    Third, we need to aim for concrete results and increase cooperation outcomes that benefit both sides. China will work with CEE countries to help the region share in the benefits of China-EU cooperation as early as possible. More should be done toward mutually-beneficial trade and investment cooperation to promote balanced and sustainable trade growth. China intends to import, in the coming five years, more than 170 billion US dollars of goods from CEE countries. Platforms like the China International Import Expo and the China-CEEC Expo would be better leveraged for China to import more goods from CEE countries; and measures will be taken to set up a China-CEEC sanitary and phytosanitary working group mechanism and a focal point for inspection and quarantine affairs and to merge risk assessment procedures on a category basis, in order to refine the assessment process for agri-food products from CEE countries and speed up their entry into China. We could also strengthen business cooperation at the sub-national level and continue to develop demonstration zones and industrial parks for China-CEEC business cooperation in Chinese cities like Ningbo and Cangzhou.

    We need to deepen agricultural cooperation in a bid to double CEE countries' agricultural exports to China and raise two-way agricultural trade by 50 percent over the next five years. We propose setting up a farm produce wholesale market in the CEE region and introducing an exchange program for young agricultural professionals.

    We need to enhance exchange and cooperation in culture, education, tourism, sports, media and press, and among think tanks, young people and sub-national entities. The Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games are a good opportunity for strengthening China-CEEC cooperation in the sports field. We will hold a new round of Education Policy Dialogue and Higher Education Institutes Consortium meetings this year, and support establishing a university in Hungary by Fudan University. The two sides could jointly develop more tourism products with local features and co-organize training of tourism professionals. The outcomes of the fifth China-CEEC Local Leaders' Meeting should be fully implemented to produce more fruits from sub-national cooperation.

    Fourth, we need to focus on green development and forge drivers of future-oriented cooperation. On the basis of our "green consensus", we need to steadfastly advance international cooperation on climate change, jointly implement the Paris Agreement and contribute to the success of COP26 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, both to be held this year. To enhance green development, we may take the China-CEEC Year of Green Development and Environmental Protection as an opportunity to deepen exchange and cooperation in green economy, clean energy and other related areas.

    We need to step up cooperation in science, technology and innovation (STI). China proposes setting up a China-CEEC STI Research Center and holding a China-CEEC Forum for Young S&T Talents, and will publish the China-CEEC STI Scorecard 2020. We need to capitalize on various emerging business forms to widen our cooperation on the digital economy, e-commerce and the health sector. China supports setting up a China-CEEC dialogue mechanism on e-commerce cooperation and a China-CEEC alliance in the public health industry.

    Colleagues,

    This year will be the beginning of China's 14th Five-Year Plan for economic and social development, and the start of the country's new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. Entering a new stage of development, China will quicken its pace in fostering a new development paradigm with domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international circulations reinforcing each other. This will unlock the full potential of China's vast market and domestic demand generated by the 1.4 billion population, including the over 400 million Chinese in the middle-income group. It will thus boost global demand and create more opportunities for the rest of the world. China will continue to open its door wider, with a focus on institutional opening-up that covers rules, regulations, management and standards. We will continue our efforts to foster a business environment that is based on market principles, governed by law and up to international standards. We will take a more active part in bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation that delivers higher levels of mutual benefit for all. China's continued development and opening-up will inject powerful impetus into global economic recovery and growth, and broaden the horizons for China-CEEC cooperation.

    Colleagues,

    As a saying in Central and Eastern Europe goes, "Good advice is better than gold."I hope our discussion today will build on our consensus and draw a new blueprint for China-CEEC cooperation under the new circumstances. With our shared commitment and efforts, we will surely achieve more solid, substantive and enduring progress in the cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European countries.

    Full Text: Special address by President Xi at WEF Virtual Event of Davos Agenda

    President Xi Jinping attends the World Economic Forum (WEF) Virtual Event of the Davos Agenda and delivers a special address via video link in Beijing, capital of China, Jan 25, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    Let the Torch of Multilateralism Light up Humanity's Way Forward

    Special Address by H.E. Xi Jinping

    President of the People's Republic of China

    At the World Economic Forum Virtual Event of the Davos Agenda

    25 January 2021

    Professor Klaus Schwab,

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    The past year was marked by the sudden onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic. Global public health faced severe threat and the world economy was mired in deep recession. Humanity encountered multiple crises rarely seen in human history.

    The past year also bore witness to the enormous resolve and courage of people around the world in battling the deadly coronavirus. Guided by science, reason and a humanitarian spirit, the world has achieved initial progress in fighting COVID-19. That said, the pandemic is far from over. The recent resurgence in COVID cases reminds us that we must carry on the fight. Yet we remain convinced that winter cannot stop the arrival of spring and darkness can never shroud the light of dawn. There is no doubt that humanity will prevail over the virus and emerge even stronger from this disaster.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    History is moving forward and the world will not go back to what it was in the past. Every choice and move we make today will shape the world of the future. It is important that we properly address the four major tasks facing people of our times.

    The first is to step up macroeconomic policy coordination and jointly promote strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth of the world economy. We are going through the worst recession since the end of World War II. For the first time in history, the economies of all regions have been hit hard at the same time, with global industrial and supply chains clogged and trade and investment down in the doldrums. Despite the trillions of dollars in relief packages worldwide, global recovery is rather shaky and the outlook remains uncertain. We need to focus on current priorities, and balance COVID response and economic development. Macroeconomic policy support should be stepped up to bring the world economy out of the woods as early as possible. More importantly, we need to look beyond the horizon and strengthen our will and resolve for change. We need to shift the driving forces and growth models of the global economy and improve its structure, so as to set the course for long-term, sound and steady development of the world economy.

    The second is to abandon ideological prejudice and jointly follow a path of peaceful coexistence, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation. No two leaves in the world are identical, and no histories, cultures or social systems are the same. Each country is unique with its own history, culture and social system, and none is superior to the other. The best criteria are whether a country's history, culture and social system fit its particular situation, enjoy people's support, serve to deliver political stability, social progress and better lives, and contribute to human progress. The different histories, cultures and social systems are as old as human societies, and they are the inherent features of human civilization. There will be no human civilization without diversity, and such diversity will continue to exist for as long as we can imagine. Difference in itself is no cause for alarm. What does ring the alarm is arrogance, prejudice and hatred; it is the attempt to impose hierarchy on human civilization or to force one's own history, culture and social system upon others. The right choice is for countries to pursue peaceful coexistence based on mutual respect and on expanding common ground while shelving differences, and to promote exchanges and mutual learning. This is the way to add impetus to the progress of human civilization.

    The third is to close the divide between developed and developing countries and jointly bring about growth and prosperity for all. Today, inequality continues to grow, the North-South gap remains to be bridged, and sustainable development faces severe challenges. As countries grapple with the pandemic, their economic recoveries are following divergent trajectories, and the North-South gap risks further widening and even perpetuation. For developing countries, they are aspiring for more resources and space for development, and they are calling for stronger representation and voice in global economic governance. We should recognize that with the growth of developing countries, global prosperity and stability will be put on a more solid footing, and developed countries will stand to benefit from such growth. The international community should keep its eyes on the long run, honor its commitment, and provide necessary support to developing countries and safeguard their legitimate development interests. Equal rights, equal opportunities and equal rules should be strengthened, so that all countries will benefit from the opportunities and fruits of development.

    The fourth is to come together against global challenges and jointly create a better future for humanity. In the era of economic globalization, public health emergencies like COVID-19 may very well recur, and global public health governance needs to be enhanced. The Earth is our one and only home. To scale up efforts to address climate change and promote sustainable development bears on the future of humanity. No global problem can be solved by any one country alone. There must be global action, global response and global cooperation.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    The problems facing the world are intricate and complex. The way out of them is through upholding multilateralism and building a community with a shared future for mankind.

    First, we should stay committed to openness and inclusiveness instead of closeness and exclusion. Multilateralism is about having international affairs addressed through consultation and the future of the world decided by everyone working together. To build small circles or start a new Cold War, to reject, threaten or intimidate others, to willfully impose decoupling, supply disruption or sanctions, and to create isolation or estrangement will only push the world into division and even confrontation. We cannot tackle common challenges in a divided world, and confrontation will lead us to a dead end. Humanity has learned lessons the hard way, and that history is not long gone. We must not return to the path of the past.

    The right approach is to act on the vision of a community with a shared future for mankind. We should uphold the common values of humanity, i.e. peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, rise above ideological prejudice, make the mechanisms, principles and policies of our cooperation as open and inclusive as possible, and jointly safeguard world peace and stability. We should build an open world economy, uphold the multilateral trading regime, discard discriminatory and exclusionary standards, rules and systems, and take down barriers to trade, investment and technological exchanges. We should strengthen the G20 as the premier forum for global economic governance, engage in closer macroeconomic policy coordination, and keep the global industrial and supply chains stable and open. We should ensure the sound operation of the global financial system, promote structural reform and expand global aggregate demand in an effort to strive for higher quality and stronger resilience in global economic development.

    Second, we should stay committed to international law and international rules instead of seeking one's own supremacy. Ancient Chinese believed that "the law is the very foundation of governance". International governance should be based on the rules and consensus reached among us, not on the order given by one or the few. The Charter of the United Nations is the basic and universally recognized norms governing state-to-state relations. Without international law and international rules that are formed and recognized by the global community, the world may fall back to the law of the jungle, and the consequence would be devastating for humanity.

    We need to be resolute in championing the international rule of law, and steadfast in our resolve to safeguard the international system centered around the UN and the international order based on international law. Multilateral institutions, which provide the platforms for putting multilateralism into action and which are the basic architecture underpinning multilateralism, should have their authority and effectiveness safeguarded. State-to-state relations should be coordinated and regulated through proper institutions and rules. The strong should not bully the weak. Decision should not be made by simply showing off strong muscles or waving a big fist. Multilateralism should not be used as pretext for acts of unilateralism. Principles should be preserved and rules, once made, should be followed by all. "Selective multilateralism" should not be our option.

    Third, we should stay committed to consultation and cooperation instead of conflict and confrontation. Differences in history, culture and social system should not be an excuse for antagonism or confrontation, but rather an incentive for cooperation. We should respect and accommodate differences, avoid meddling in other countries' internal affairs, and resolve disagreements through consultation and dialogue. History and reality have made it clear, time and again, that the misguided approach of antagonism and confrontation, be it in the form of cold war, hot war, trade war or tech war, would eventually hurt all countries' interests and undermine everyone's well-being.

    We should reject the outdated Cold War and zero-sum game mentality, adhere to mutual respect and accommodation, and enhance political trust through strategic communication. It is important that we stick to the cooperation concept based on mutual benefit, say no to narrow-minded, selfish beggar-thy-neighbor policies, and stop unilateral practice of keeping advantages in development all to oneself. Equal rights to development should be guaranteed for all countries to promote common development and prosperity. We should advocate fair competition, like competing with each other for excellence in a racing field, not beating each other on a wrestling arena.

    Fourth, we should stay committed to keeping up with the times instead of rejecting change. The world is undergoing changes unseen in a century, and now is the time for major development and major transformation. To uphold multilateralism in the 21st century, we should promote its fine tradition, take on new perspectives and look to the future. We need to stand by the core values and basic principles of multilateralism. We also need to adapt to the changing international landscape and respond to global challenges as they arise. We need to reform and improve the global governance system on the basis of extensive consultation and consensus-building.

    We need to give full play to the role of the World Health Organization in building a global community of health for all. We need to advance reform of the World Trade Organization and the international financial and monetary system in a way that boosts global economic growth and protects the development rights, interests and opportunities of developing countries. We need to follow a people-centered and fact-based policy orientation in exploring and formulating rules on global digital governance. We need to deliver on the Paris Agreement on climate change and promote green development. We need to give continued priority to development, implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and make sure that all countries, especially developing ones, share in the fruits of global development.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    After decades of strenuous efforts by the Chinese people, China is on course to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. We have made historic gains in ending extreme poverty, and have embarked on a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. As China enters a new development stage, we will follow a new development philosophy and foster a new development paradigm with domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international circulations reinforcing each other. China will work with other countries to build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity.

    — China will continue to take an active part in international cooperation on COVID-19. Containing the coronavirus is the most pressing task for the international community. This is because people and their lives must always be put before anything else. It is also what it takes to stabilize and revive the economy. Closer solidarity and cooperation, more information sharing, and a stronger global response are what we need to defeat COVID-19 across the world. It is especially important to scale up cooperation on the R&D, production and distribution of vaccines and make them public goods that are truly accessible and affordable to people in all countries. By now, China has provided assistance to over 150 countries and 13 international organizations, sent 36 medical expert teams to countries in need, and stayed strongly supportive and actively engaged in international cooperation on COVID vaccines. China will continue to share its experience with other countries, do its best to assist countries and regions that are less prepared for the pandemic, and work for greater accessibility and affordability of COVID vaccines in developing countries. We hope these efforts will contribute to an early and complete victory over the coronavirus throughout the world.

    — China will continue to implement a win-win strategy of opening-up. Economic globalization meets the need of growing social productivity and is a natural outcome of scientific and technological advancement. It serves no one's interest to use the pandemic as an excuse to reverse globalization and go for seclusion and decoupling. As a longstanding supporter of economic globalization, China is committed to following through on its fundamental policy of opening-up. China will continue to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, help keep the global industrial and supply chains smooth and stable, and advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. China will promote institutional opening-up that covers rules, regulations, management and standards. We will foster a business environment that is based on market principles, governed by law and up to international standards, and unleash the potential of the huge China market and enormous domestic demand. We hope these efforts will bring more cooperation opportunities to other countries and give further impetus to global economic recovery and growth.

    — China will continue to promote sustainable development. China will fully implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It will do more on the ecological front, by transforming and improving its industrial structure and energy mix at a faster pace and promoting a green, low-carbon way of life and production. I have announced China's goal of striving to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Meeting these targets will require tremendous hard work from China. Yet we believe that when the interests of the entire humanity are at stake, China must step forward, take action, and get the job done. China is drawing up action plans and taking specific measures already to make sure we meet the set targets. We are doing this as a concrete action to uphold multilateralism and as a contribution to protecting our shared home and realizing sustainable development of humanity.

    — China will continue to advance science, technology and innovation. Science, technology and innovation is a key engine for human progress, a powerful weapon in tackling many global challenges, and the only way for China to foster a new development paradigm and achieve high-quality development. China will invest more in science and technology, develop an enabling system for innovation as a priority, turn breakthroughs in science and technology into actual productivity at a faster pace, and enhance intellectual property protection, all for the purpose of fostering innovation-driven, higher-quality growth. Scientific and technological advances should benefit all humanity rather than be used to curb and contain other countries' development. China will think and act with more openness with regard to international exchange and cooperation on science and technology. We will work with other countries to create an open, fair, equitable and non-discriminatory environment for scientific and technological advancement that is beneficial to all and shared by all.

    — China will continue to promote a new type of international relations. Zero-sum game or winner-takes-all is not the guiding philosophy of the Chinese people. As a staunch follower of an independent foreign policy of peace, China is working hard to bridge differences through dialogue and resolve disputes through negotiation and to pursue friendly and cooperative relations with other countries on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. As a steadfast member of developing countries, China will further deepen South-South cooperation, and contribute to the endeavor of developing countries to eradicate poverty, ease debt burden, and achieve more growth. China will get more actively engaged in global economic governance and push for an economic globalization that is more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial to all.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    Friends,

    There is only one Earth and one shared future for humanity. As we cope with the current crisis and endeavor to make a better day for everyone, we need to stand united and work together. We have been shown time and again that to beggar thy neighbor, to go it alone, and to slip into arrogant isolation will always fail. Let us all join hands and let multilateralism light our way toward a community with a shared future for mankind.

    Thank you.

    Full text of President Xi's 2021 New Year address

    President Xi Jinping delivers a New Year speech Thursday evening in Beijing to ring in 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

    Comrades, friends, ladies and gentlemen, greetings to you all!

    The year 2021 is arriving. From China's capital Beijing, I extend my New Year wishes to you all!

    2020 was an extraordinary year. Facing the sudden coronavirus pandemic, we put people and their lives first to interpret the great love among humans. With solidarity and resilience, we wrote the epic of our fight against the pandemic.

    During the days when we addressed the hardships together, we saw the heroic spirit of marching straight to the frontlines, holding posts with tenacity, taking responsibility to get through thick and thin, sacrifices with bravery, and touching moments of helping each other.

    From medical workers to the people's army, from scientific researchers to community workers, from volunteers to those who built the projects, from seniors to youths born after the 1990s and 2000s, numerous people fulfilled their missions at the cost of their lives and protected humanity with sincere love.

    They pooled their drops of strength into tremendous power and built an iron wall to safeguard lives. Many figures marched ahead without hesitation, many relays were accomplished hand in hand, many scenes showed touching moments, all these vividly illustrate the great spirit of fighting against the pandemic.

    Greatness is forged in the ordinary. Heroes come from the people. Every person is remarkable!

    Our sympathy goes to all the unfortunate ones infected with the coronavirus! We salute all the ordinary heroes!

    I am proud of our great motherland and people, as well as the unyielding national spirit. Only in hard times can courage and perseverance be manifested. Only after polishing can a piece of jade be finer. We overcame the impact of the pandemic, and made great achievements in coordinating prevention and control and in economic and social development.

    The 13th Five-Year Plan has been accomplished in full. The 14th Five-Year Plan is being comprehensively formulated. We are accelerating the pace to set up a new pattern for development, and are deeply implementing high-quality development.

    China is the first major economy worldwide to achieve positive growth, and its GDP in 2020 is expected to step up to a new level of 100 trillion yuan. China has seen a good harvest in grain production for 17 years in a row. China has seen breakthroughs in scientific explorations like the Tianwen-1 (Mars mission), Chang'e-5 (lunar probe), and Fendouzhe (deep-sea manned submersible). Construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port is proceeding with vigor.

    We also defeated severe flooding. With the military and civilians heedless of danger and difficulty, and standing in unity, we managed to minimize the damage of the floods.

    I inspected 13 provincial-level regions and was glad to see people carefully implementing coronavirus prevention and control measures, racing against time to resume work and production, and sparing no efforts to advance innovation.

    Everywhere were vibrant scenes of confident, resilient people making the most of every minute. In 2020, China made the historic achievement of establishing a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieved decisive success in eradicating extreme poverty.

    We launched the final assault on the fortress of entrenched rural poverty, and cracked this "hardest nut."

    Through 8 years, under the current standard, China has eradicated extreme poverty for the nearly 100 million rural people affected, and all the 832 impoverished counties have shaken off poverty.

    These years, I have visited 14 contiguous areas of dire poverty. The unremitting efforts of the folks and the wholehearted contribution of the poverty-eradication cadres often come to my mind.

    We still need to stay tenacious like a bamboo deeply rooted in the rocks, keep our feet on the ground, and work hard to paint a magnificent picture of rural vitalization, and steadily march ahead towards the goal of common prosperity.

    This year, we celebrated the 40th anniversary of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, among others, and 30 years of the development and opening-up of Pudong in Shanghai. As I stood on the southern coast as the spring tide surged and on the colorful bank of the Huangpu River, my mind was filled with a myriad of thoughts.

    Pilot trials have become models and leading forces, and explorations to innovate have become leading forces of innovation. The opening-up and reform has created miracles of development. In the future, we should further deepen reform and expand opening-up with greater courage, and create more "Stories of Spring."

    We are not alone on the Great Way and the whole world is one family. After a year of hardship, we can understand more than ever the significance of a community with a shared future for mankind.

    I had many phone calls with friends from the international community, both old and new, and attended many "cloud conferences." What we discussed most was staying united to combat the pandemic.

    We still have a long way to go in pandemic prevention and control. People from all over the world should join hands and support each other to early dispel the gloom of the pandemic and strive for a better "Earth home."

    2021 will see the 100th birthday of the Communist Party of China. Its 100-year journey surges forward with great momentum. Its original aspiration remains even firmer one hundred years later.

    From Shikumen in Shanghai to the South Lake in Jiaxing City, the small red boat (where the first CPC congress concluded) bore the great trust of the people and the hope of the nation. The boat has sailed through turbulent rivers and treacherous shoals, and has voyaged across violent tidal waves, becoming a great ship that navigates China's stable and long-term development.

    The CPC bears its eternal great cause in mind, and the centenary only ushers in the prime of life. We adhere to putting people at the center, stay true to our original aspiration, keep our mission well in mind, break the waves and sail out for our journey ahead, and we will certainly realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

    At the historic crossroad of the "Two Centenary Goals," the new journey of comprehensively building a modern socialist country is about to start. The road ahead is long; striving is the only way forward. We have strived, broken through brambles and thorns, and crossed ten thousand rivers and thousands of mountains.

    We will continue to strive, march ahead with courage, and create brighter glory! At just this moment, the festive lanterns have been lit, and family members gather for reunion. The New Year is coming. I wish our land to be splendid, our country to be prosperous, and our people to live in peace. I wish you all a harmonious, smooth and auspicious year, full of happiness!

    Thank you!

    President Xi's speech at Climate Ambition Summit 2020

    President Xi Jinping addresses the Climate Ambition Summit via video link on Dec 12, 2020. [Photo/Xinhua]

    President Xi Jinping on Saturday delivered a speech via video link at the Climate Ambition Summit, which was held to mark the fifth anniversary of the Paris climate accord.

    Below is the full text:

    Your Excellency Secretary-General António Guterres,

    Dear Colleagues,

    It gives me great pleasure to join you in this Climate Ambition Summit. Five years ago, world leaders showed the utmost political resolve and wisdom and adopted the Paris Agreement on climate change. Since then, the implementation of the Paris Agreement has received extensive international support and participation. At present, the international landscape is evolving more rapidly and COVID-19 is triggering deep reflections on the relationship between man and nature. The future of global climate governance is drawing greater attention. In this context, I wish to make three proposals:

    First, we need to close ranks and make new advances in climate governance that features cooperation and win-win. In meeting the climate challenge, no one can be aloof and unilateralism will get us nowhere. Only by upholding multilateralism, unity and cooperation can we deliver shared benefits and win-win for all nations. China welcomes all countries' support for the Paris Agreement and their greater contribution to tackling climate change.

    Second, we need to raise ambition and foster a new architecture of climate governance where every party does its part. Following the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, all countries need to maximize actions in light of their respective national circumstances and capabilities. At the same time, developed countries need to scale up support for developing countries in financing, technology and capacity building.

    Third, we need to boost confidence and pursue a new approach to climate governance that highlights green recovery. Mountains and rivers green are mountains of silver and gold. It is important to encourage green, low-carbon ways of life and production, and seek development opportunities and impetus from green development.

    China has made important contributions to adopting the Paris Agreement and has made active efforts toward implementing it. I announced in September that China would scale up its nationally determined contributions and adopt more vigorous policies and measures. We aim to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060.

    Today, I wish to announce some further commitments for 2030: China will lower its carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by over 65 percent from the 2005 level, increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 25 percent, increase the forest stock volume by 6 billion cubic meters from the 2005 level, and bring its total installed capacity of wind and solar power to over 1.2 billion kilowatts.

    China always honors its commitments. Guided by our new development philosophy, we will promote greener economic and social development in all respects while pursuing high-quality development. We will take solid steps to implement the targets just announced, and contribute even more to tackling the global climate challenge.

    Colleagues,

    As a Chinese poem reads, "Heaven does not speak and it alternates the four seasons; Earth does not speak and it nurtures all things." Earth is our only and shared home. Let us build on past achievements, work together to make steady progress in implementing the Paris Agreement, and launch a new journey for global climate actions.

    Thank you.

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